According to the analysis of the present situation of China's reduced iron powder industry, direct reduction is a process of reducing iron oxide to solid iron without melting or slagging. The general situation and present situation of reducing iron powder industry in China are analyzed. Direct reduction products are collectively referred to as direct reduction iron. Due to the spongy structure of DRI, they are also called "sponge iron". In order to improve the oxidation resistance and bulk density of products, DRI hot extrusion products are called Hot Briquette (HBI), and dri cold extrusion products are called DRI briquette.
Direct reduction is a large-scale industrial production technology, there are dozens of direct reduction methods. In 2008, the world's DRI / HBI output was about 68.45 million tons, accounting for 7.23% of the world's 930 million tons of pig iron production. Because of its high purity, stable quality and excellent metallurgical properties, DRI has become an indispensable raw material for the production of high-quality steel and pure steel. It is one of the most popular commodities in the world steel market. Direct reduction is an indispensable part of steel production in the world.
Tunnel kiln is one of the oldest ironmaking methods. In the rest of the world, the tunnel kiln method is only used in one kind of reduction process of powder metallurgy reduction iron powder production. In addition to China, there is no report of using tunnel kiln to produce DRI for steelmaking. Tunnel kiln technology content is low, suitable for small-scale production, less investment, in line with the investment needs of private enterprises, in the near future in China has been greatly developed. There are more than 200 tunnel kilns built or under construction in China, with a design annual production capacity of more than 4 million tons. So far, the construction upsurge of DRI tunnel kiln has increased unabated. It is found from the multimedia retrieval that there are dozens of direct reduction iron plants with a planned capacity of 50000-300000 tons / year, which are planned to be built by multiple units.
According to the market investigation and analysis report of reduction iron powder industry, the tunnel kiln adopts pot reduction method, which has low thermal efficiency, high energy consumption, 450-650kg / T reduction coal (DRI), 450-550kg / T heating coal (DRI), long production cycle (48-76h), and serious pollution (most of the solid wastes are caused by many dust in reduction coal ash and waste water reduction tank, unstable product quality, and difficult to expand the capacity of a single unit, etc Therefore, it is impossible to be the leading method for the development of DRI in China.Direct reduction is the basis of short process (compact) in iron and steel production. Short process is the development direction of iron and steel industry. It does not use coking coal, has low energy consumption, less investment per unit capacity, short construction cycle and little impact on the environment. DRI / HBI is one of the most popular products in the international steel market. In recent years, the price of DRI in the international market continues to rise (the high price of imported DRI / HBI in China is 586 US dollars / ton). From the perspective of international market, DRI has a broad development prospect.
China's steel reserves are insufficient, and the output of scrap is far from meeting the needs of steel production. The shortage of scrap is an important factor affecting the development of EAF steel in China. At the same time, the main energy source of iron and steel production in China is coke. The shortage of coking coal resources in the world, the serious interference of soaring prices and the threat to the sustainable development of iron and steel industry in China. The development of direct reduction is conducive to improving the energy structure of China's iron and steel production and getting rid of the constraints of coking coal resources on development. It is an important way to reduce the adverse effects of iron and steel production on the environment. The market capacity of DRI in China is expected to reach 15-20 million T / A.
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